Effective Date of the Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani
On October 31, 2000, Archbishop Francesco Pio Tamburrino, OSB, Archbishop Secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, wrote to Bishop Joseph A. Fiorenza, President of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops, regarding the effective date of the Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani (Prot. 2161/00/L). As previously indicated by the BCL (see BCL Newsletter, September-October 2000, page 38), the Archbishop made clear that the Institutio Generalis takes effect upon its publication as a part of the Missale Romanum, and is expected sometime in the first half of the coming year. An excerpt from the Archbishop's letter follows:
Further to its letter of 11 October 2000 regarding the Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani of the forthcoming editio typica tertia of the Missale Romanum, the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments would wish to raise an additional point of clarification occasioned by the impression given by some statements of a largely informal character diffused by a number of Conferences of Bishops.
The text of the Institutio Generalis prepared for the editio typica tertia of the Missale Romanum has been approved by the Holy Father and sent to press as part of the text of the Missal. Anticipating the length of time the printing operation might take, the Congregation resolved to issue in extract the text of the Institutio Generalis to permit the Bishops to begin preparation of accurate translations of it into the liturgically approved languages and the appropriate formation of the clergy and catechesis of the faithful.
The Institutio Generalis will have force of law at the moment when the promulgation of the abovementioned edition of the Missale Romanum appears in its third Latin edition along with the promulgating decree, any vacatio legis being specified at that time. It now appears unlikely that by the time of publication any part of the vacatio legis will still be unexpired. While the psychological and pastoral impact may be in practice attenuated until such time as priests and people have available an updated English translation of the new editio typica tertia of the Missal as a whole, and while the Congregation remains willing to consider such adaptations as individual Conferences may raise for their territory, this does not alter the fact that the provisions of the new Institutio Generalis in themselves have immediate effect as of the date of publication of the full Missal. They are, consequently, not dependent upon the decisions of the diocesan Bishop nor the Conference of Bishops. The Bishops have all liberty to take pastoral measures they consider appropriate to implement what is laid down by the Institutio Generalis, but would need to act within the framework it provides, without the possibility of countermanding what it stipulates or delaying its entering into legal force.
November 2000 Meeting of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops
Three action items proposed by the Bishops' Committee on the Liturgy were approved at a plenary meeting of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops held in Washington D.C. from November 13-16, 2000.
In response to a recommendation from two successive memberships of the Hispanic Liturgy Subcommittee, the Committee recommended that future translations of Sacred Scripture in Spanish Language liturgical books for the dioceses of the United States of America be taken from the translation employed by the Mexican Lectionary for Mass. The recommendation, based on a survey of all Hispanic bishops and a significant sampling of others involved in Hispanic liturgical ministry, was approved by the NCCB with a vote of 187 in favor and 60 against.
Following the expiration of several extensions of the Holy See's 1992 permission for use of the Lectionary for Masses with Children, the Committee on the Liturgy also made a recommendation concerning this liturgical book. Again mindful of the imminent expiration of this permission, of the concerns of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments and the widespread pastoral use of this book, the Committee decided to appoint a task group to examine these issues within the next two years. In a motion approved by voice vote, the NCCB adopted this course of action, as well as "the concept of a Lectionary for Masses with Children." Details concerning the membership and work of the Task Group for the Lectionary for Masses with Children will be announced in the December issue of the BCL Newsletter.
Finally, the NCCB approved "Built of Living Stones: Art, Architecture, and Worship" as guidelines of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops. The guidelines were developed with the assistance of a task group chaired by Bishop Frank Rodimer. The scope and purpose of the document is perhaps best described in its own preface:
"Twenty-two years after the publication of Environment and Art, the bishops of the United States present a new document on church art and architecture that builds on and replaces Environment and Art and addresses the needs of the next generation of parishes engaged in building or renovating churches. Built of Living Stones reflects our understanding of the liturgy, of the role and importance of church art and architecture, and of the integral roles of the local parish and the diocese that enter into a building or renovation project.
"This document has been approved by the bishops of the Latin Church of the United States and issued by the authority of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops on November 16, 2000. Built of Living Stones contains many of the provisions of universal law governing liturgical art and architecture and offers pastoral suggestions based upon the experience of the last thirty-five years. The document presents guidelines that can serve as the basis for diocesan bishops to issue further guidelines and directives for their dioceses. Where the document quotes or reiterates norms from liturgical books and the Code of Canon Law, those prescriptions are binding on local communities and dioceses."
November 2000 Meeting of the NCCB Committee on the Liturgy
On November 11, 2000, and again on November 14, 2000, the NCCB Committee on the Liturgy met in Washington D.C. In the course of these meetings, plans were finalized for a special meeting of the Committee in February 20001 at which proposed emendations to the recently revised General Instruction on the Roman Missal and the revision of the directory, This Holy and Living Sacrifice, will be considered.
The preponderance of the meeting was devoted to consideration of amendments to the NCCB Guidelines, Built of Living Stones. Plans for the revision of NCCB emendations to the USA Appendix to the GIRM 2000 were also reviewed. In light of these planned revisions, the Committee decided to postpone publication of the Pastoral Introduction to the Order of Mass until later next year.
Consultation on USA Emendations to the Institutio Generalis 2000
Chapter nine of the recently revised Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani describes "adaptations which are the competence of bishops and conferences of bishops" (388). In the latter category are the preparation of vernacular typical editions (389) and seven specific adaptations which include the adaptation of gestures and postures (24, 43), gestures of veneration of the altar and Book of the Gospels (273), texts of various chants (48, 74, 87), scriptural readings for various circumstances (262), the form of the gesture of peace (82), the manner of receiving Holy Communion (160), and determinations regarding the materials for altars and sacred furnishings (301, 326, 329, 339, 342-343). Number 390 then notes that "Directories or Pastoral Instructions which the Conferences of Bishops judge useful may, with the prior recognitio of the Apostolic See, be introduced into the Roman Missal at a suitable location."
Finally, the Conferences of Bishops are responsible for approving "appropriate melodies, especially for the texts of the Order of Mass, for the people's responses and acclamations, and for the special rites that occur in the course of the liturgical year [and for judging] which musical forms, melodies, and musical instruments may be admitted into divine worship, in that they are truly apt for sacred use or can be rendered apt." (303)
In light of these provisions for adaptation in the revised Institutio Generalis, Archbishop Oscar Lipscomb, chairman of the Committee on the Liturgy, has written to all bishop members of the NCCB requesting their participation in a consultation regarding prospective adaptations to the Institutio Generalis, either in the form of changes to the Appendix to the General Instruction for the Dioceses of the United States of America or possible requests for indults.
A copy of this consultation will also be distributed to diocesan directors of worship and chairs of liturgical commissions inviting their participation. The BCL is grateful to the Federation of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions for their assistance with this aspect of the consultation.
The Committee on the Liturgy will consider the results of these consultations at a special meeting in February of 2001. The actions of the Committee will then be presented to the NCCB at its June, 2001 plenary meeting. Adaptations approved by the NCCB will then be submitted to the Holy See for confirmation.
Finally, Archbishop Lipscomb announced that the Committee on the Liturgy has unanimously decided to recommend that the NCCB request an indult to allow extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion to consume the Precious Blood remaining after the distribution of Holy Communion and to purify sacred vessels when this is judged appropriate by the diocesan bishop.
Farewell to Sister Ann Rehrauer, OSF
On November 20, 2000, Sister Ann Rehrauer, OSF completed her term as Associate Director of the NCCB Secretariat for the Liturgy. Sister Ann began her work at the Secretariat in June 1995. In addition to her regular duties answering inquiries and consulting on all matters pertaining to the work of the Secretariat, she has served as lead staff person for BCL task groups on Guidelines for Televising the Liturgy, the Forum on the Vernacular Translation of the Liturgical Texts and the recently completed NCCB document on Catholic art and architecture, Built of Living Stones.
Having previously served as chancellor, director of worship and as a member of the Tribunal of the Diocese of Green Bay, she leaves the Secretariat to complete doctoral studies in canon law at the Catholic University of America. The competence and gentle presence of this good daughter of Saint Francis will be deeply missed by the Committee on the Liturgy and the members of its Secretariat
Welcome to Father Kenneth J. Martin
On December 1, 2000, Father Kenneth J. Martin joined the BCL as Associate Director of the Secretariat. Father Martin is a priest of the Wilmington Diocese where he has until recently served as Director of the Office for Worship. Father Martin holds a Doctor of Arts (D.A.) degree in Spanish and has recently completed a Doctor of Sacred Theology (S.T.D.) degree in liturgy at the Catholic University of America, writing on A Critical Examination of religiosidad popular in the Writings of Luis Maldonado. Father Martin is immediate past chair of the Federation of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions and is former dean of students at Saint John's Seminary College in Camarillo, California.
Actions of the Delegates to the National Meeting of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions
The National Meeting of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions was held from October 3-7, 2000 in Costa Mesa, California. The following Resolutions of Immediate Concern and Position Statements were passed by the diocesan delegates who were present. As is the customary practice of the BCL Newsletter, these resolutions are provided for the information of our readership. They do not necessarily reflect the views of the Committee on the Liturgy.
RIC 2000 A
Whereas the Pastoral Introduction to the Order of Mass (PIOM) was approved in 1997 by the member bishop conferences of ICEL and received permission to publish from the Congregation for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments in July 2000; Whereas the PIOM was emended during the process of recognitio; Whereas the nearly simultaneous release of IGMR 2000 to Diocesan Worship Offices and Commissions and the public-at-large has led to confusion and has hindered the proper preparation and catechesis of the faithful; Whereas the FDLC has previously passed a position statement (1997C) regarding timely publication of the PIOM; The delegates to the 2000 National Meeting of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions are resolved that the release of the Pastoral Introduction to the Order of Mass is a matter of significant and immediate concern to them. They urge the BCL to withhold release of the PIOM in any form until it is reviewed, discussed and approved by the NCCB and request that Diocesan Worship Offices and Commissions receive adequate time to study the text prior to release to the general public in order to prepare catechesis for implementation.
RIC 2000 B
Whereas the Latin text of IGMR2000 has not been published in the Roman Missal; Whereas the FDLC acknowledges the responsibility of diocesan bishops for the direction, tone and spirit of the liturgy in collegial solidarity within the NCCB; Whereas disagreement and/or confusion exists regarding the canonical status, the effective date and implementation date of IGMR2000; Whereas the NCCB is considering requesting indults before the IGMR2000 has been published in the Roman Missal; Whereas contradictory interpretations have emerged from various agencies of other Episcopal Conferences. The delegates to the 2000 National Meeting of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions are resolved that the confusion surrounding the implementation of the IGMR2000 is a matter of significant and immediate concern to them. They urge that the BCL ask the NCCB to appoint, as soon as possible, an interdisciplinary ad hoc committee of bishops comprising members from the NCCB's committees on Liturgy, Canonical Affairs, and Pastoral Research and Practices to study and refer recommendations concerning the above issues to the entire NCCB for consideration and resolution.
Process for Translation of the GIRM
RIC 2000 C
Whereas the FDLC seeks to reaffirm its commitment to the liturgical renewal through its work with our bishops and their conference; Whereas the publication of the English language study translation of the General Instruction of the Roman Missal 2000 deviated from the longstanding and customary process in use over the past 30 years, namely the reception of the Latin text, its subsequent translation by ICEL, NCCB discussion and approval, confirmation by the Holy See, and final pastoral implementation; Whereas the general release of the among the faithful. The delegates to the 2000 National Meeting of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions are resolved that the publication of the English language study translation of the General Instruction of the Roman Missal 2000 prepared by the Secretariat for the Liturgy is a matter of significant and immediate concern to them. They urge that, with any future revision of the GIRM and with all future liturgical documents, the BCL adhere to the normative procedure that honors the pastoral authority of our bishops and their conference and the long standing and customary process for the approval and confirmation of English language liturgical texts to insure a fruitful and orderly reception and implementation of the third edition of the Roman Missal and all future liturgical documents.
Development of the FDLC Website
PS 2000 A
It is the position of the delegates to the 2000 National Meeting of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions that the Board of Directors of the FDLC through the National Office facilitate interdiocesan and interregional communication between national meetings through the expansion and on going development of the interactive capabilities of the present FDLC website.
Liturgical Documentation Resource
It is the position of the delegates to the 2000 National Meeting of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions that the Executive Committee of the Federation of Diocesan Liturgical Commissions engage in a dialogue with the BCL Secretariat and/or publishers in order to produce a resource that will contain universal and National Conference of Catholic Bishops' liturgical documents issued during and since the Second Vatican Council with a complete index containing topic and subject references and cross references, pertinent annotations and magisterial clarifications. The resource should indicate the relative canonical weight of the documents cited and be published in a written, loose-leaf format as well as in electronic form.
Thirty-Five Years of the BCL Newsletter: 1965-2000
The Committee on the Liturgy has been a leading voice in the liturgical reform since its inception in the aftermath of the Second Vatican Council. Spanning from the mid- sixties to the dawn of the new millennium, this new compendium of newsletters is the perfect research tool for those involved with liturgical ministry. All issues of the BCL Newsletter are presented chronologically. An extensive index makes this substantial volume an essential resource for bishops, priests, deacons, liturgists and liturgy committee members, seminarians, college/university students, libraries and all those interested in tracing developments in liturgical thought and action. No. 5-402, 1,950 pp. (est.). Call USCC Publishing Services toll-free at (800) 235-8722 for information on pricing and availability.
Catechesis on the Eucharist by Pope John Paul II
At the General Audience of October 18, 2000, the Holy Father presented the following catechesis on The Eucharist, Banquet of Communion with God.
- "We have become Christ. For if he is the head we are the members; he and we together are the whole man" (Augustine, Tractatus in Joh., 21, 8). St Augustine's bold words extol the intimate communion that is created between God and man in the mystery of the Church, a communion which, on our journey through history, finds its supreme sign in the Eucharist. The commands, "Take, eat ... Drink of it ..." (Mt 26: 26-27), which Jesus gives his disciples in that room on the upper floor of a house in Jerusalem on the last evening of his earthly life (cf. Mk 14: 15), are rich in meaning. The universal symbolic value of the banquet offered in bread and wine (cf. Is 25: 6) already suggests communion and intimacy. Other more explicit elements extol the Eucharist as a banquet of friendship and covenant with God. For, as the Catechism of the Catholic Church recalls, it is "at the same time, and inseparably, the sacrificial memorial in which the sacrifice of the cross is perpetuated, and the sacred banquet of communion with the Lord's body and blood" (CCC, n. 1382). Covenant on Sinai foretold new covenant in Christ's blood.
- Just as in the Old Testament the movable shrine in the desert was called the "tent of meeting", that is, of the encounter between God and his people and of brethren in faith among themselves, the ancient Christian tradition called the Eucharistic celebration the "synaxis", i.e., "meeting". In it "the Church's inner nature is revealed, a community of those summoned to the synaxis to celebrate the gift of the One who is offering and offered: participating in the Holy Mysteries, they become "kinsmen' of Christ, anticipating the experience of divinization in the now inseparable bond linking divinity and humanity in Christ" (Orientale lumen, n. 10). If we wish to reflect more deeply on the genuine meaning of this mystery of communion between God and the faithful, we must return to Jesus' words at the Last Supper. They refer to the biblical category of "covenant", recalled precisely through the connection between Christ's blood and the sacrificial blood poured out on Sinai: "This is my blood of the covenant" (Mk 14: 24). Moses had said: "Behold the blood of the covenant" (Ex 24: 8). The covenant on Sinai which united Israel to the Lord with a bond of blood, foretold the new covenant which would give rise - to use an expression of the Greek Fathers - to a kinship as it were between Christ and the faithful (cf. Cyril of Alexandria, In Johannis Evangelium, XI; John Chrysostom, In Matthaeum hom., LXXXII, 5).
- It is especially in the Johannis and Pauline theologies that the believer's communion with Christ in the Eucharist is extolled. In his discourse at the synagogue in Capernaum Jesus says explicitly: "I am the living bread which came down from heaven; if anyone eats of this bread, he will live for ever" (Jn 6: 51). The entire text of this discourse is meant to emphasize the vital communion which is established in faith between Christ, the Bread of life, and whoever eats it. In particular, we find the Greek verb menein, "to abide, to dwell", which is typically used in the Fourth Gospel to indicate the mystical intimacy between Christ and the disciple: "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him" (Jn 6: 56; cf. 15: 4-9).
- Then the Greek word for "communion", koinonia, is used in the reflection of the First Letter to the Corinthians, where Paul speaks of the sacrificial banquets of idolatry, calling them the "table of demons" (10: 21), while expressing a valid principle for all sacrifices: "Those who eat the sacrifices are partners in the altar" (10: 18). The Apostle applies this principle in a clear and positive way to the Eucharist: "The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not a participation (koinonia) in the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not a participation (koinonia) in the body of Christ?... We all partake of the one bread" (10: 16-17). "Sharing in the Eucharist, the sacrament of the New Covenant, is the culmination of our assimilation to Christ, the source of "eternal life', the source and power of that complete gift of self" (Veritatis splendor, n. 21).
Holiness, love and truth express our intimacy with God
- This communion with Christ thus produces an inner transformation of the believer. St Cyril of Alexandria effectively describes this event, showing its resonance in life and in history: "Christ forms us in his image so that the features of his divine nature will shine in us through sanctification, justice and a good life in conformity with virtue. The beauty of this image shines in us who are in Christ, when we show ourselves to be good people through our deeds" (Tractatus ad Tiberium Diaconum sociosque, II, Responsiones ad Tiberium Diaconum sociosque, in In divi Johannis Evangelium, vol. III, Brussels 1965, p. 590). "By sharing in the sacrifice of the Cross, the Christian partakes of Christ's self-giving love and is equipped and committed to live this same charity in all his thoughts and deeds. In the moral life the Christian's royal service is also made evident and effective" (Veritatis splendor, n. 107). This royal service is rooted in Baptism and blossoms in Eucharistic communion. The way of holiness, love and truth is therefore the revelation to the world of our intimacy with God, expressed in the Eucharistic banquet. Let us express our desire for the divine life offered in Christ in the warm tones of a great theologian of the Armenian Church, Gregory of Narek (10th century): "It is not for his gifts, but for the Giver that I always long. It is not glory to which I aspire, but the Glorified One whom I desire to embrace.... It is not rest that I seek, but the face of the One who gives rest that I implore. It is not for the wedding feast, but for desire of the Bridegroom that I languish" (XII Prayer).