Since the 1970s, the place of human rights in U.S. foreign policy has stirred vigorous debate in this country. During the 1990's, a concern for religious liberty became an important part of this debate. There is a growing awareness and conviction that religious liberty is a core American value that should help shape U.S. foreign policy. Since 9/11, greater vigilance is needed to ensure that human rights and religious liberty do not take a back seat in U.S. foreign policy. Significant historical developments include:
- In May 1999, the Secretary of State"s Advisory Committee on Religious Freedom Abroad (which included two Catholic Bishops) issued its important Final Report on how the United States can better promote respect for religious liberty abroad.
- In October 1998, the International Religious Freedom Act (IRFA) was enacted. IRFA, which the USCCB supported, makes the promotion of religious freedom an explicit U.S. foreign policy goal. The law provides a flexible menu of policy options for responding to the most serious violations, and better integrates religious liberty concerns into U.S. foreign policy by creating a new office for religious freedom within the State Department, providing for improved training and monitoring, and requiring new annual reports by the State Department. The law covers all religious freedom violations in all countries, without preference.
- IRFA also created a new nine-member U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom to monitor religious freedom violations and make recommendations to the Administration and Congress. This commission began its work in June 1999 and issues its own annual report on the status of religious liberty. Bishop William Murphy of Rockville Centre, NY is a member.
The Significance of Religious Freedom. The concern for religious liberty is not a new one for the USCCB. From the Soviet bloc and Latin America in the 1970s and 1980s to China and Sudan today, the Bishops have worked to promote respect for religious liberty and against religious persecution and discrimination, which Pope John Paul II has called "intolerable and unjustifiable violation[s]
of the most fundamental human freedom, that of practicing one"s faith openly, which for human beings is their reason for living." The USCCB"s efforts are part of our broader initiative to ensure that promotion of human rights is a central concern of U.S. policy that links U.S. aid and trade to a country"s human rights performance.
Human Rights Conventions. The USCCB supported U.S. ratification of the torture and genocide conventions and the covenants on race, and civil and political rights. The USCCB also urges the ratification of the Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. U.S. participation in these and other human rights instruments is critical for the strengthening of international norms and adding credibility to its own efforts to promote greater respect for religious liberty and other basic rights.
Specific Cases. Dozens of countries violate religious freedom, often as part of a general disrespect for human rights. The USCCB has focused, among others, on the following:
China. The USCCB opposed the annual extension of Normal Trade Relations (NTR), (formerly Most Favored Nation Trade Status) to China due to serious violations of religious freedom and other human rights abuses. Regrettably, the U.S. Congress extended permanent NTR to China three years ago. The USCCB continues to monitor and press for greater religious liberty in China. Of particular concern is the persecution of religious groups, such as the unregistered Protestant and Catholic churches, and the intrusive interference by the state in the internal life of the "open" or recognized churches. The persecution and control of Tibetan Buddhism is especially shameful and well known.
Cuba. Freedom to fully practice one"s beliefs has increased considerably in recent years, notably since the January 1998 papal visit, but the state still maintains excessive control over almost every aspect of daily life. The early years of outright persecution, expulsion of clergy, and confiscation of religious properties are past, but the Church is still restricted in receiving pastoral workers from abroad or in gaining access to communications media, and is still prevented from conducting its own schools.
Pakistan. Discrimination against non-Muslim minorities has lessened, but has not been eliminated in recent years. The state has just ended the separate electorate system whereby Christians could vote only for Christians and Muslims could vote only for Muslims, a 20-year system the Bishops called religious apartheid. Islamic extremists, however, continue to pose a serious danger. Recent years have seen the massacres of Christian worshipers at a Catholic church in Bahawalpur, the execution-style slaying of Christian workers at the Karachi Justice and Peace Commission and the attack on the Christian hospital in Taxila.
Russia. A 1997 law continues to cause problems for many non-Orthodox communities subjecting them to discrimination and arbitrary government actions, particularly at local levels. Since February, 2002, the Catholic church has faced significant discrimination and harassment including the expulsion of Bishop Mazur and five priests. In addition, there have been anti-Catholic demonstrations and media coverage and problems with church building permits.
Sudan. Sudan"s civil war is greatly exacerbated by the Khartoum government"s efforts to impose an extreme interpretation of Islamic law on the country. Despite some progress in the peace process, Christians, moderate Muslims, and other minority groups continue to suffer from a wide range of human rights abuses including arbitrary arrest, slavery, and denial of humanitarian food and other assistance. Over 18 years, some two million have been killed and twice that number displaced.
Nigeria. Religious conflict increased after the transfer of power from a military to a civilian government, a situation worsened by the imposition of shari"a law in Muslim-dominated northern states. While Nigeria boasts of a national committee to promote inter-religious dialogue, the strict application of Islamic law and its imposition on non-Muslims (Christians and animists), risks further ethnic, political, economic and other hostilities as witnessed in recent violent clashes in Kano and Kaduna.
Vietnam. While extensive restrictions on religious freedom still exist, the recent years have seen considerable improvement, especially in relations between the Catholic Church and the government. Long delays before allowing candidates for the priesthood and religious life to enter seminaries and novitiates continue. Although the state still insists on maintaining excessive controls over all religious practice, its need for ever greater contact and trade with the rest of the world has apparently led to the lessening of some restrictions on religious life.
Related USCCB statements on human rights and religious freedom can be found at: (www.usccb.org/sdwp/international/; see also (September,2002) (www.state.gov ), Commission on International Religious Freedom, Report on U.S. Policy (May 2002) (www.uscirf.gov)
For further information: Walt Grazer 202-541-3199 (ph); 202-541-3339 (fax);